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Dr Lee Rotherham is Director of the Red Cell, and is Executive Director of Veterans for Britain.

Given recent attempts in some quarters to suggest that the possible post-Brexit relationship between the UK and the EU must copy the format of either Canada or Norway, we reproduce below Dr Lee Rotherham’s list of the 42 different types of relationship with the EU established to date. Further study of each arrangement can be found in his report ’42’

Type of Agreement – Example

EU membership – eg France

Subsumed political union/merger with nation state – e.g. East Germany

EU membership with opt-out – e.g. Denmark

European Economic Area (EEA) – e.g. Norway

Transitional Europe Agreement Establishing an Association – e.g. Pre-accession Bulgaria

Protocol 3 Association – e.g. Guernsey

Outermost Region (OMR) – e.g. Guadeloupe

Cooperation and Customs Union (CCU) – e.g. San Marino

Customs Union – e.g. Turkey

Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) – e.g. Ukraine

Free Trade Agreement plus bilateral(s) – e.g. Switzerland, Faroes

Basic symmetric free trade agreement (eg CEFTA) – e.g. Macedonia

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, pending) – e.g. USA

Comprehensive Trade and Economic Agreement (CETA, ongoing) – e.g. Canada

Non-Member Member territory – EU exclave – e.g. Büsingen am Hochrhein

EU-OCTA (OCT Association) – e.g. Falklands

Non-EU OCTA – e.g. South Georgia

New Generation Free Trade Agreement – e.g. South Korea

Bilateral Stabilisation and Association Agreement: Non-reciprocal trade preference agreement with bolt- ons – e.g. Macedonia (formerly)

Free Trade Agreement – e.g. Malaysia (ongoing)

Agreement on Commercial and Economic Cooperation (ACEC) – e.g. Canada (previously)

Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation – e.g. Mongolia

Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation Agreement (EPPCCA) – e.g. Mexico

Interim Agreement on Trade and Trade-related Matters – e.g. Bosnia

Informal backdoor legacy association (no official term) – e.g. Algeria after independence

Trade Agreement – e.g. Colombia

Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) – e.g. CARIFORUM (provisional)

Association Agreement and Additional Protocol – e.g. Chile

“Association Agreement with a strong trade component” – e.g. Central America

Euro-Mediterranean Agreement Establishing an Association (EMAA) – e.g. Israel

Interim Economic Partnership Agreement – e.g. Madagascar

Comprehensive Partnership and Cooperation Agreement – e.g. Vietnam

Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) – e.g. Russia

Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement (ATDC) – Asymmetric free trade agreement – e.g. South Africa

Generalized/Global System of Preferences Plus status (GSP+) – e.g. Costa Rica

Generalized/Global System of Preferences – WTO default with preferential rates for developing country – e.g. South Sudan

Partnership Agreement – e.g. Lomé Agreement

Cooperation Agreement – e.g. Syria

Most Favoured Nation (MFN) plus Joint Programming – e.g. Namibia

WTO MFN default – e.g. United States

Agreement on Trade and Commercial and Economic Cooperation (ATCEC) – e.g. USSR (previously)

Less than WTO – e.g. North Korea

76 comments for: Lee Rotherham: The 42 different types of trade relationship with the EU (so far)

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