The first piece in ConHome's UK Aid series is written by Jess Espey, Senior Research and Policy Adviser at Save the Children UK. You can follow Jess on Twitter here.
Thirteen years ago world
leaders made the bold and ambitious pledge to work towards eradicating global
poverty, hunger and disease by 2015. There can be no doubt that these Millennium Development Goals were one of the most powerful and unifying agreements in political
As the deadline looms,
there is still more to be done to achieve the far reaching promises, but largely
they have been incredibly successful. Through global cooperation we
have lifted 600 million people out of poverty and helped 56 million more
children go to school; while 14,000 fewer children under the age of 5 now die
each day than did in 1990?
These are the very real results of the
commitment, dedication and focus of governments, charities, faith groups and
businesses across the world.
Secret Success of Smart Aid
know that economic growth and political leadership have been key drivers of
development progress in recent years. However we also know that smartly
invested aid has been a secret success story.
For example, immunisation coverage
for six major vaccine preventable diseases – pertussis, childhood tuberculosis,
tetanus, polio, measles and diphtheria – has risen significantly since the
World Health Organization (WHO) began its Programme on Immunisation in 1974.
the time, only 5 per cent of the world’s children were immunised against the six key
vaccine-preventable diseases. By 2010, DTP3 (three doses of vaccinations
against diphtheria, tetanus and polio) coverage in the first year of life was
estimated at 85 per cent. Polio is on the verge of eradication. Meanwhile deaths from
measles, a major killer of children under five, fell by 78 per cent worldwide and by
92 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2008.
WHO and UNICEF have been major funders of national immunisation programmes, and
since the formation in 2000 of the GAVI Alliance, global health partnership of
public and private sector organizations, substantially larger donor funds have
been mobilised. These funds have enabled the introduction of new vaccines and
increased coverage of longer-standing vaccination programmes. The UK is a key supporter
of GAVI ; and over a five year period our
commitment will vaccinate one child
every two seconds, immunising 80 million children in all and saving 1.4 million
Thanks to the continued generosity of the UK
public, and the leadership of the government, our aid is putting the world on the
cusp of major breakthroughs. To capitalise on this progress Save the Children believes that
we should build on the strengths of the MDGs while also addressing the
structural drivers of poverty and deprivation such as the quality of
governance, whether people can voice their concerns and needs, whether there is
accountability and transparency, as well as how countries can tackle forms of
Looking at these structural drivers will help to build the
systems of effective governance and to help developing countries to stand on
their own two feet. As some of Britain’s top business
recently, there are huge benefits to the UK of developing countries becoming
strong emerging economies and engines of future global growth and prosperity.
Sometimes this will mean using our aid to
support the conditions in which growth can occur. Our aid has contributed to
improving education, health, sanitation and other public services in many of
the world’s poorest countries. This investment in human capital is fundamental
for a functioning economy.
We should also, however, be providing
assistance to improve governance. The UK’s Department for International
Development is already taking positive steps in this direction. The governance
portfolio (an average 17 per cent of expenditure) is improving public financial
management, including tax capacity, strengthening civil society, supporting
decentralisation and local government and bolstering national mechanisms for
conflict prevention and resolution. The review, two years ago, of DFID’s
Governance work highlighted a number of impressive results, for example in
Nigeria DFID has helped to recover or freeze £163m of corruptly obtained assets
and to secure the UK’s first conviction for foreign bribery, dramatically
increasing available public revenues.
UK Aid for the 21st Century
This kind of approach can help us respond
to a changing world. The distribution of poverty, for example, is fundamentally
different from when the last set of global poverty goals were set. New
estimates show that three-quarters of the world’s approximately 1.3bn people
living in income poverty now do so in middle-income countries (MICs), whereas
in 1990, 93% of this group lived in low-income countries (LICs). One study
estimated that 8 Indian states have more poor people than the 26 poorest
African nations combined. Fragile
States are also a more pressing concern – as the last decade has seen economic and food crises,
conflict and climate change increasing vulnerability of some of the world’s
poorest children. It is now estimated that by 2015, half of the world’s people
surviving on less than 1.25 dollars a day will be found in fragile states.
To respond to this
changing global context we need a new approaches to tackle poverty. What is
certain is that aid is becoming less and less central to development, whilst
trade and investment between developing countries, remittance flows, South-South cooperation, philanthropy,
as well as non-concessional finance like equity and debt are becoming more
prominent. We therefore need to ensure it continues to be spent well.
Children believes the UK can do three critically important things with its aid
First, maintain a strong
focus on conflict affected fragile states which continue to be heavily aid
dependent. Not only is it a moral imperative because of the number of poor
people living in these contexts, but it is of strategic interest. Fragile
regions are some of the most difficult to do development in as they are more
vulnerable to shocks (internal and external), and in turn they are particularly
susceptible to instability, with potential consequences beyond their borders. But
our support therefore plays a vital role providing essential services,
strengthening local institutions, and promoting social cohesion.
addition, according to the OECD, aid remains the biggest financial flow in
fragile states, followed by remittances, as fragile states do not benefit from
much foreign direct investment. Unfortunately about half of fragile states are
expected to see a drop in programmable aid between 2012 and 2015. This is of
particular concern in countries that are chronically “under-aided”, aid
dependent or facing slow economic growth.
Second, DFID can focus on strengthening the catalytic impact of aid,
by using it to support the building of effective public systems, as it is doing
for example in India, providing technical assistance with the state
governments (in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and
Uttar Pradesh) to improve the entire health system, including staffing,
medicine and infrastructure. It should also use
aid to strengthen tax collection capacity, which can help developing countries
co-finance and eventually, fully finance their own development.
of strong taxation systems was highlighted at the recent G8 Summit where
leaders recognized taxation to
be crucial to effective, capable states and “essential to fairness and prosperity for all. Nevertheless, many developing
countries struggle to collect domestic revenue as a result of poor quality tax
policies and tax administration, limited technical capacity, the challenges of
taxing the informal sector, high dependence upon but poor management of natural
resources, poor transparency in the international economic architecture and
illicit financial flows.
Third, DFID could reevaluate its recent approach towards
middle-income countries. Given increasing domestic revenue in these
countries, many have argued for donors to increase the proportion of aid going
to poorer countries by reducing aid to MICs.
Indeed, the UK cut aid to emerging
economies by about a quarter in 2011. But there are a number of reasons to
continue providing support to MICS. These include the fact that about
three-quarters of the world’s poorest people (933 million people) live in MICs.
Second, MICs are not only important in themselves, but also for the countries
close to them, acting as regional hubs or ‘poles of development at the regional
level’. Third, many MICs, especially the largest ones, are vital to achieving
global public goods. They are important actors in the prevention of global
public ‘bads’ from financial crises and global health pandemics.
DFID should therefore
commit to maintain support to MICS with high burdens of poverty, but should
diversify its approach, using a variety of channels including grant aid, but
also technical cooperation, loans, and blended projects. Going forward ‘aid has
a role to support attempts to respond to the specific problems and priorities
of MICs, not as a large source of development finance, but as a strategic
catalyst for change and consolidation of progress. The key is to focus not so
much on what the money buys, but on what incentives it creates.
As 2015 approaches, we should feel a profound
sense of opportunity. In the year 2000, the international community committed
to dramatic change. We made the world’s biggest promise to its poorest people
that we would tackle absolute poverty, child mortality, hunger – and that
promise is only partially fulfilled. We need to renew and extend the promise
and develop new approaches to help realise it.
For the first time in human
history it is conceivable that within a generation we could end preventable
child deaths, eradicate hunger and rid the world for good of the scandal of
absolute poverty. But to do so will take more than business as usual; it will
require a resolute focus not on the easy to reach, but on the hardest to help.
It will require smart investments of British aid, and a focus on some of the
most pervasive and intractable development challenges.
If we are willing to
take up the challenge, then we can be the generation to end these age-old
injustices for good.