Science and innovation
Science and innovation are vital to prosperity, security and wellbeing. The UK has a long history of collaborating with European partners on ground-breaking research, from the search for an Ebola vaccine and other medical breakthroughs, to cleaner energy research, through to work on space exploration.
Partnerships between the UK and other EU Member states increase the impact and influence of our science and research activity. Continued collaboration on science and innovation is to the mutual benefit of both parties.
The UK plays an important role in making Europe one of the world’s leading locations for research and innovation. The UK strongly supports the key principles that underpin EU science and innovation, of scientific excellence, openness to the world and European added value. The UK welcomes the EU’s proposal for the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), the EU budgetary cycle, which demonstrates continued ambition towards research and innovation. The UK would like to play a role in realising that ambition.
As Box 1 demonstrates, there is substantial benefit from UK-EU scientific cooperation. Continued collaboration on science and innovation would mean both parties would continue to benefit, driving up the quality of research outputs and significantly increasing the impact and influence of EU science and research activity.
The UK wishes to build on our existing relationship by concluding an ambitious agreement on science and innovation with the EU. This will outline a framework for cooperation in science, research, innovation and technology, providing mechanisms to facilitate UK-EU cooperation and encourage bilateral and multilateral collaboration between the UK and EU Member States. The agreement should contain provisions which:
- establish channels for regular dialogue between regulators, researchers and experts;
- ensure continued cooperation through joint EU and UK participation in networks, infrastructures, policies and agencies which are to our joint benefit;
- provide for UK participation in EU research funding programmes relating to science and innovation;
- establish governance provisions, such as participation in programme and other relevant Committees, to ensure the UK’s influence over those policies and programmes in which we continue to participate to the benefit of the UK and the EU.
The agreement should be based on the following principles:
- mutual benefit;
- reciprocal opportunities to engage in cooperative activities;
- equal and fair treatment;
- timely sharing of information that may affect cooperative activities.
UK and EU research communities should be able to continue to access the skills that support innovation in science and technology while also ensuring cross-border collaboration. To support this cooperation, the UK has proposed agreeing an appropriate UK-EU labour mobility framework that will underpin many areas of our future economic partnership. More detail on this can be found in the Mobility Framework chapter of this paper.
The agreement should also contain provisions for continued UK participation in specific policies and networks which benefit businesses, researchers, citizens, and patients across the UK and the EU.
The UK-EU Science and lnnovation pact should, for instance, ensure continued UK participation in European Reference Networks (ERNs), which support European cooperation and knowledge sharing in the field of rare diseases, in terms of both clinical care and research. The UK has particular expertise in this field, and contributes greatly to ERNs to the benefit of researchers and patients across the continent.
Similarly, the pact should contain provisions to allow the UK to continue participating in, and hosting, European Research lnfrastructure Consortia (ERlCs). These facilitate the establishment and operation of research infrastructures with European interest. The UK currently hosts two ERlCs, including INSTRUCT, which promotes innovation in biomedical science by making high-end technologies and methods in structural biology available to users.
We will look to secure the best outcome for the UK research base as we exit the European Union. The UK Government is consulting widely with stakeholders to ensure we fulfil this ambition, including through the High Level Stakeholder Working Group on EU exit, universities, research and innovation. This group provides a forum for government and representatives of the universities, science, research and innovation communities to discuss issues of common interest in approaching the UK’s exit from the EU.
This pact will benefit the entirety of the UK. Scotland, for instance, makes up [10 per cent] of all UK participation in EU research programmes, with the University of Edinburgh amongst the top beneficiaries of Horizon2020 funding in the UK, and having participated in European Research Council projects [57 times, with a net EU contribution of €88.1 million, to date].
The UK and the EU should continue to cooperate on policies and programmes which are to their joint advantage, such as those that promote science, education and culture. A UK-EU science and innovation pact should recognise the right of the UK to participate in EU programmes and other networks and bodies as appropriate.
Science and innovation programmes for which the UK would like to discuss participation options with the EU, include, but are not limited to:
- the Framework Programmes for Research and lnnovation;
- the Euratom Research and Training Programmes,
- the Health Programmes; and
- Copernicus and Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST).
There are a range of precedents for non-EU participation in Union programmes. To build upon the unique UK-EU relationship in science and innovation, both parties may agree to go beyond existing precedent when agreeing the terms for UK participation in Union programmes.
The UK would make a fair financial contribution to any programme in which we continue to participate, based on the nature of cooperation between both parties.
The pact should also include governance UK-EU dialogue on science and research arrangements to promote continued priorities. These provisions should ensure a suitable level of UK influence and involvement through our representation at strategic fora and committees.
Culture and education
The UK’s cultural and creative exports are an expression of the values and ideas the UK shares with Europe, as well as a being an important way to bring communities together. lnternational partnerships – such as the Victoria & Albert Museum’s work with Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife and the Mus6e du Louvre or collaborative networks among educational institutions – stimulate artistic creativity, improve educational standards and enrich the European cultural life.
The UK will always be a European country and proud of its European heritage. The UK will remain a strong advocate for cultural diversity as part of our global, outward-looking identity and we will continue our undiminished commitment to supporting European culture.
The UK proposes to establish an ambitious cultural accord with the EU. lt will maintain the links between our people and reflect our shared objective to support the growth of sectors such as the arts, creative industries and sport, as well as to provide opportunities for cultural exchange and education across borders.
The proposal includes key elements such as supporting the restitution of cultural objects, as well as EU programme participation and temporary movement of goods and people in the cultural, creative and sports sectors.
A statement of continued cooperation will signal our long-term intention to continue UK-EU cultural, tourism, sporting and educational cooperation. lt will include continued UK membership of some EU cultural groups and networks, as well as collaboration between the UK and specific Member States.
The statement will include the following measures:
- loans of cultural objects, such as artworks, antiquities and fossils between UK and EU museums for temporary exhibitions;
- joint invitations or requests from the UK and the EU to key arts, educational and cultural institutions to propose work together;
- agreement to explore organising festivals, conferences, and themed events;
- agreement that UK institutions can continue to be partners, associates, or advisors to EU-funded projects that could benefit from our expertise and resources, and vice versa;
- continued uK participation in EU prizes and groups that share best practice, expertise and encourage collaborative working across educational, cultural, creative, heritage, tourism and sport sectors;
- continued collaboration and engagement with the EU including sports integrity (anti-doping, combatting match-fixing), good governance and the promotion of physical activity;
- agreement on educational exchanges between the uK and EU Member States, including immigration/visa procedures;
- continued participation in some EU education networks and exchanges of best practice;
- collaboration on the protection of cultural heritage and,18e
- sharing of data and national statistics, to facilitate educational comparisons to ensure the highest standards of learning.
This statement should contain a commitment to explore new forms of cultural and creative exchange, including those made possible by digital technologies as highlighted in the UK’s “Culture is Digital” project. This will support collaborations between the public and private sectors, drawing on the varied strengths of the different nations and regions of the UK and Europe. This will ensure that the cultural accord can adapt as new technologies influence the cultural and creative sectors.
EU programme participation
There are three relevant cultural and educational programmes that the UK has committed to participating in until the end of 2020, when the EU’s current budget framework ends:
- Erasmus+: an outward mobility programme that provides opportunities for young people and educational professionals, to participate in exchange, training and youth work across Europe. In 2017, projects were granted in the UK.
- Creative Europe: a programme to support the cultural, creative and audio-visual sectors.
The UK proposes to discuss participation programmes such as these post-2020 (or their successors under the next EU budget period) as a third country, where it is in our mutual interest to do so.
Supporting the restitution of cultural objects
The UK is a world leader in cultural protection, following recent successful initiatives such as the establishment of the Cultural Protection Fund; ratification of the Hague Convention and UK leadership on spoliation. The UK is also particularly active in cross-border trade in cultural objects: the UK art market is by far the largest in Europe with [62%] of the EU market by value. Providing for disincentives to illegal trade in cultural objects in our future relationship with the EU is therefore important.
Continued affiliation with the cultural object restitution regime system would underpin our efforts towards shared objectives such as preventing the illicit removal and trading of cultural objects.
Labour mobility in the creative, cultural, and sports sectors
Travelling in and out of the EU for activities requiring temporary movement, such as music touring, film and TV production, sport participation or seasonal sport instruction, is critical to the continued growth and current position of European creative and cultural industries. There is also precedent for the inclusion of mobility provisions in the EU’s Cultural Cooperation Protocols with third countries, for example, the EU/Colombia/Peru; the EU-Cariforum states and the EU-Korea agreements all provide provisions for the mobility of artists, creators and other cultural professionals and practitioners. More detail on UK proposals for future labour mobility can be found in Part X chapter Y.
Temporary movement of goods in the cultural, creative, and sports sectors
Temporary movement of goods and equipment is a priority for cultural, creative and sports sectors. This includes instruments used by touring musicians and orchestras; objects and collections loaned between museums; sporting equipment taken to competitive events; art, design and fashion tours and exhibitions; sets and costumes for theatre and filming equipment.
Development and international action
Based on OECD data, in 2016, the value of the UK’s Global official Development Assistance (ODA) was [£13.3bn], and balanced against GNI, the UK is [one of only 5] EU Member States to meet the UN resolution target of 0.7%. The EU is the UK’s second biggest multilateral partner in terms of ODA contributions, and in 2016 the EU Institutions and Member States collectively spent [€75.5 billion] on ODA.
Where we hold shared commitments and objectives, it is in our mutual interests to find ways to continue working together, on a case-by-case basis, to ensure that we can collectively draw on expertise, to achieve our global development objectives and to deliver the best value for money.
Discussions are underway on the future financial frameworks for all EU development assistance from 2021. We suggest that the new instruments are designed so that they are open to external partners that share the same values and commitments, to enable the free-flow of ideas, pooling of technical expertise and resources, and to facilitate joint-approaches. Cooperation should entail a suitable level of strategic influence and oversight over UK funds in line with contribution and the assets that we contribute.
We have seen how creating new and open instruments, such as the migration Trust Funds, has enabled us to respond quickly and effectively to targe scale crises. A flexible, open and responsive EU is in everyone’s interests.
Defence research and development
The UK has the largest defence budget in Europe and is Europe’s leading exporter of military equipment. The UK Defence market is one of the most open and competitive in the world helping to support tens of thousands of jobs across Europe.
To ensure that the UK and EU Member States can work together on research and development projects, an accord should allow for UK collaboration on future projects, for example through the European Defence Research programme (EDRP) and the Defence lndustrial Development Programme (EDIDP).
This is an area where EU structures are evolving, which underlines the importance of a flexible partnership. The development of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) provides new opportunities to strengthen Europe’s defence capabilities, for example through improvements to military mobility within and beyond the European Union. The UK supported PESCO’s launch in Decemb er 2017 , we have been consistent that we want to see it develop in a way that is coherent with NATO and that is open to third country participation where there is a clear value in doing so, including for the UK and our defence industry.
Depending on the specific programme and level of access, the accord should include a third-party indexed financial contribution in return for full access; or looser arrangements that enable collaboration but require agreement and funding on a case by case basis.